As soon as she was declared sole regent, the leading nobles demanded the restoration of the privileges they had lost under Richelieu. Determined that her son should succeed to the absolute power that Richelieu had won for Louis XIII, she resisted these demands and took as her first minister the Italian-born Cardinal Jules Mazarin, one of Richelieu's most able associates. Anne and Mazarin were devoted to one another, and some historians have concluded that they were secretly married. Together they faced the series of revolts known as the Fronde (1648-53). The rebels forced Anne to dismiss Mazarin in February 1651, but, by faithfully following the Cardinal's instructions, she was able to divide her enemies. The rebellion virtually collapsed in October 1652, and Mazarin returned to Paris.